Recommended Native Species

Common names are linked to plant gallery portraits where available.

Trees

Small Trees (up to 25 ft)
Common NameScientific NameTypeLightSoil Moisture (*)
ServiceberryAmelanchier arboreadeciduousfull / part-sunmesic / sub-xeric
Devil’s walkingstickAralia spinosa (2)deciduousfull / part-sunhydric / xeric
Paw pawAsimina trilobadeciduouspart-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
American hornbeamCarpinus carolinadeciduouspart-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
ChinquapinCastanea pumiladeciduousfull-sun / shadesub-xeric / xeric
Eastern RedbudCercis canadensisdeciduousfull-sun / shademesic / xeric
Fringe TreeChionanthus virginicusdeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / xeric
Pagoda dogwoodCornus alternifoliadeciduouspart-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
Flowering dogwoodCornus floridadeciduoussun / shademesic / xeric
Washington hawthornCrataegus phaenopyrumdeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / xeric
PersimmonDiospyros virginianadeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / sub-xeric
Carolina silverbellHalesia carolinadeciduousfull-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
Common witch-hazelHamamelis virginianadeciduousfull-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
American hollyIlex opacaevergreenfull-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
Red cedarJuniperus virginianaevergreenfull-sun / part-sunsub-xeric / xeric
Umbrella treeMagnolia tripeteladeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / sub-xeric
Hop-hornbeamOstrya virginianadeciduouspart-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
SourwoodOxydendrum arboreumdeciduousfull-sun / shadesub-xeric / xeric
HoptreePtelea trifoliatadeciduousfull-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
American plumPrunus americanadeciduousfull-sun / part-sunsub-xeric / xeric
Pin cherryPrunus pensylvanicadeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / sub-xeric
Common SassafrasSassafras albidum (2)deciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / sub-xeric
Blackhaw ViburnumViburnum rufidulumdeciduousfull-sun / shademesic / xeric

Large Trees (over 25 ft)
Common NameScientific NameTypeLightSoil Moisture (*)
Red mapleAcer rubrumdeciduousfull-sun / shadehydric / xeric
Sugar mapleAcer saccharumdeciduousfull-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
Yellow buckeyeAesculus flavadeciduouspart-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
Yellow birchBetula alleghaniensesdeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / sub-xeric
Sweet birchBetula lentadeciduousfull-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
River birchBetula nigradeciduousfull-sun / part-sunhydric / sub-xeric
Bitternut hickoryCarya cordiformisdeciduousfull-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
Pignut hickoryCarya glabradeciduousfull-sun / shadesub-xeric / xeric
YellowwoodCladrastis kentuckeadeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / sub-xeric
BeechFagus grandifoliadeciduousfull-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
Tulip treeLiriodendron tulipiferadeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / sub-xeric
Cucumber treeMagnolia acuminatadeciduouspart-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
Black tupeloNyssa sylvaticadeciduousfull-sun / shademesic / xeric
SycamorePlatanus occidentalisdeciduousfull-sun / part-sunhydric / mesic
Red sprucePicea rubensevergreenfull-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
Black cherryPrunus serotina (2)deciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / xeric
White oakQuercus albadeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / xeric
Chestnut oakQuercus montanadeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / xeric
Red oakQuercus rubradeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / sub-xeric
Post oakQuercus stellatadeciduousfull-sun / part-sunsub-xeric / xeric
American lindenTilia americanadeciduousfull-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
Canadian hemlockTsuga canadensisevergreenfull-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
Carolina hemlockTsuga carolinianaevergreenfull-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
< a name="shrubs" >
Shrubs:
Low Shrubs (under 4 ft)
Common NameScientific NameTypeLightSoil Moisture (*)
New Jersey teaCeanothus americanusdeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / xeric
SweetfernComptonia peregrinadeciduousfull-sun / part-sunsub-xeric / xeric
Snowhill HydrangeaHydrangea aborescensdeciduouspart-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
Shrubby St. John’s WortHypericum prolificumdeciduousfull-sun / part-sunhydric / xeric
Drooping leucothoeLeucothoe fontanesianaevergreenpart-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
Carolina roseRosa carolinadeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / sub-xeric
Swamp roseRosa palustrisdeciduousfull-sun / part-sunhydric / mesic
CranberryVaccinium macrocarponevergreenfull-sun / part-sunhydric / mesic
Lowbush blueberryVaccinium pallidumdeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / xeric
Maple-leaf ViburnumViburnum acerifoliumdeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / xeric

Mid-size Shrubs (4 to 10 ft)
Common NameScientific NameTypeLightSoil Moisture (*)
Red chokeberryAronia arbutifoliadeciduousfull-sun / part-sunhydric / sub-xeric
Black chokeberryAronia melanocarpadeciduousfull-sun / part-sunhydric / sub-xeric
SweetshrubCalycanthus floridusdeciduouspart-sun / shadehydric / sub-xeric
CinnamonbarkClethra acuminatadeciduousfull-sun / part-sunsub-xeric / xeric
Silky dogwoodCornus amomumdeciduousfull-sun / part-sunhydric / sub-xeric
HazelnutCorylus americanadeciduousfull-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
Bush-honeysuckleDiervilla sessilifoliadeciduousfull-sun / shademesic / xeric
Hearts-a-bustinEuonymus americanusdeciduouspart-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
Large FothergillaFothergilla majordeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / sub-xeric
Dense HypericumHypericum densiflorumdeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / xeric
Common winterberryIlex verticillatadeciduousfull-sun / shadehydric / mesic
Virginia sweetspireItea virginicadeciduousfull-sun / shadehydric / sub-xeric
Mountain laurelKalmia latifoliaevergreenfull-sun / part-sunsub-xeric / xeric
SpicebushLindera benzoindeciduouspart-sun / shademesic
Sweet azaleaRhododendron aborescensdeciduousfull-sun / shadehydric / mesic
Flame azaleaRhododendron calendulaceumdeciduouspart-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
Carolina RhododendronRhododendron carolinianumevergreenpart-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
Mountain rosebayRhododendron catawbienseevergreenfull-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
Wild or Pinxter azaleaRhododendron periclymenoidesdeciduouspart-sun / shadehydric / sub-xeric
Pinkshell azaleaRhododendron vaseyievergreenfull-sun / part-sunmesic / sub-xeric
ElderberrySambucus canadensis (2)deciduousfull-sun / shademesic
Coral berrySymphoricarpus orbiculatus (2)deciduousfull-sun / shademesic / xeric
HobblebushViburnum alnifoliumdeciduouspart-sun / shademesic
Highbush blueberryVaccinium corymbosum (2)deciduousfull-sun / part-sunsub-xeric / xeric
DeerberryVaccinium stamineumdeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / xeric
Witherod VibernumVibernum cassinoidesdeciduousfull-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric

Large Shrubs (over 10 feet)
Common NameScientific NameTypeLightSoil Moisture (*)
Tag alderAlnum serrulata (2)deciduousfull-sun / part-sunhydric / mesic
Mountain winterberryIlex montanadeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / sub-xeric
Mock orangePhiladelphus inodorusdeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / sub-xeric
Rosebay RhododendronRhododendron maximumevergreenpart-sun / shademesic / sub-xeric
Smooth sumacRhus glabra (2)deciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / sub-xeric
Silky willowSalix sericea (2)deciduousfull-sun / shadehydric / sub-xeric
ArrowwoodViburnum dentatum (2)deciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / sub-xeric

Vines:

Common NameScientific NameTypeLightSoil Moisture (*)
Dutchman’s pipeAristolochia macrophylladeciduouspart-sun / shademesic / xeric
CrossvineBignonia capreolataevergreenfull-sun / shadehydric / sub-xeric
Trumpet creeperCampsis radicansdeciduousfull-sun / part-sunsub-xeric / xeric
Virgin’s bowerClematis virginianadeciduousfull-sun / shademesic / xeric
Climbing hydrangeaDecumaria barbaradeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / sub-xeric
Coral honeysuckleLonicera sempervirensdeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / sub-xeric
Virginia creeperParthenocissus quinquefolia (2)deciduousfull-sun / shademesic / xeric
Passion flowerPassivlora incarnatadeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / xeric
Fox grapeVitis labruscadeciduousfull-sun / part-sunmesic / sub-xeric

Ferns:
Common nameScientific name
Maidenhair fernAdiantum pedatum
Ebony spleenwortAsplenium platyneuron
Lady fernAthyrium felix-feimina ssp.asplenoides
Hay-scented fernDennstaedtia punctiloba
Wood fernDryopteris marginalis
Sensitive fernOnoclea sensibilis
Cinnamon fernOsmunda cinnamomea
Interrupted fernOsmunda claytoniana
Royal fernOsmunch regalis
Christmas fernPolystichum acrostichoides
New York fernThelypteris novaboracensis
Chain fernWoodwardia areolata
Common woodsiaWoodsia obtusa

Grasses & Sedges:
Common nameScientific name
Big bluestemAndropogon gerardii
BroomsedgeAndropogon virginicus
River caneArundinaria gigantea ssp. gigantea
Pennsylvania sedgeCarex pennsylvanica
Plantain-leaved sedgeCarex plantaginea
River oatsChasmanthium latifolium
Oat grassDanthonia compressa
Bottle brushElymus bystrix
Switch-grassPanicum virgatum
Little bluestemSchizachyrium scoparium
Indian grassSorghastrum nutans
Eastern gamma grassTripsacum dactyloides

Ground Covers:
Common nameScientific name
Pussy’s toesAntennaria plantaginifolia
Wild gingerAsarum canadense
Green-and-goldChrysogonum virginianum
Mouse-eared coreopsisCoreopsis auriculata
Wild strawberryFragaria virginiana
WintergreenGaultheria procumbens
Little brown jugsHexastylis arifolia
Dwarf crested irisIris cristata
Partridge BerryMitchella repens
Allegheny spurgePachysandra procumbens
PhaceliaPhacelia bipinnatifida
Chalice PhloxPhlox amoena
Wild blue phloxPhlox divaricata
Creeping phloxPhlox stolonifera
Golden asterPityopis graminifolia
Christmas fernPolystichum acrostichoides
Oconee bellsShortia galacifolia
Blue-eyed grassSisyrinchium mucronatum
FoamflowerTiarella cordifolia
Yellow-rootXanthorhiza simplicissima

Wildflowers:
Common nameScientific name
Doll’s eyesActaea Pachypoda
Carolina phloxPhlox carolina
Blue starAmsonia tabernaemontana
ThimbleweedAnemone virginiana
Wild columbineAquilegia canadensis
Green dragonArisaema dracontium
Jack-in-the-pulpitArisaema triphyllum
Goat’s-beardAruncus dioicus
Swamp milkweedAsclepias incarnata
Butterfly-weedAsclepias tuberosa
White wood asterAster divaricatus
Late purple asterAster patens
False goatsbeardAstilbe biternata
Wild indigoBaptisia tinctoria
Blue cohoshCaulophyllum thalictroides
Pink turtleheadChelone lyonii
Black cohoshCimicifuga racemosa
CoreopsisCoreopsis pubescens
Bleeding heartDicentra eximia
Shooting starDodecatheon meadia
Joe-Pye weedEupatorium fistulosum
Wild geraniumGeranium maculatum
SunflowerHelianthus resinosus
Sharp-lobed hepaticaHepatica acutiloba
AlumrootHeuchera americana
JewelweedImpatiens capensis
Blazing starLiatris spicata
Turk’s cap lilyLilium superbum
Cardinal flowerLobelia cardinalis
LobeliaLobelia puberula
Great lobeliaLobelia siphilitica
Fringed loostrifeLysimachia ciliata
Bishop’s capMitella diphylla
Bee balmMonarda didyma
Carolina phloxPhlox carolina
Garden phloxPhlox paniculata
Solomon’s sealPolygonatum biflorum
Blackeyed susanRudbeckia hirta
BloodrootSanguinaria canadensis
Fire pinkSilene virginica
Winkle-leaf goldenrodSolidago rugosa
Bush peaThermopsis villosa
New York ironweedVernonia noveboracensis

Mesic:
Mesic (*) for Full Sun
Common nameScientific name
New England asterAster novea angliae
Curtis asterAster curtisii
Hairy coreopsisCoreopsis pubescens
Joe-Pye weedEupatorium fistulosum
Blazing starLiatris spicata
Cardinal flowerLobelia cardinalis
Bee balmMonarda didyma
Wild blue phloxPhlox carolina
Blackeyed susanRudbeckia hirta

Mesic (*) for Shade
Common nameScientific name
Jack-in-the-pulpitArisaema triphyllum
Wild gingerAsarum canadense
Trout LilyErythronium umbilicatum
Sharp-lobed hepaticaHepatica acutiloba
AlumrootHeuchera americana
Partridge BerryMitchella repens
Cinnamon fernOsmunda cinnomonea
Solomon’s sealPolygonatum biflorum
Christmas fernPolystichum acrostichoides
Oconee bellsShortia galacifolia
FoamflowerTiarella cordifolia