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Garden with Natives

Footnotes and Keys

Footnotes

(1)
Plants alien to NC which are ranked invasive (i.e. Rank 1-3), or being watched (i.e. Watch List A-B) are marked "Invasive" in this column. (The rank is displayed as a tool-tip on hover.) See invasive status key below, or read more about invasive exotics in NC.
Plants Native to NC may be marked "Rare" in this column. (The rank or status is displayed as a tool-tip on hover.) See rank and status keys below, or read more about NC's rare plants.
(2)
Plants can be vigorous growers and may need more management to control.
(3)
Baccharis halimifolia is native to marshes and marsh borders on the outer Coastal Plain in NC, but has spread along road corridors to invade disturbed areas in the Piedmont, which is not considered its native habitat.
(4)
Native in part of its range, alien in another part.

Soil Moisture Definitions

Hydric
Wet, plants periodically or often inundated by water. Water removed so slowly that water table is at or above soil surface all year; gleyed mineral or organic soils.
Sub-hydric
Water removed slowly enough to keep water table at or near surface for most of year; gleyed mineral or organic soils; permanent seepage < 30 cm below surface.
Hygric
Water removed slowly enough to keep soil wet for most of growing season; permanent seepage and mottling; gleyed (greenish-blue-grey) colors common.
Sub-hygric
Water removed slowly enough to keep soil wet for a significant part of growing season; some temporary seepage and possibly mottling below 20 cm.
Mesic
Moist, adequate soil moisture retention year-round. Water removed somewhat slowly in relation to supply; soil may remain moist for a significant, but sometimes short period of the year. Available soil moisture reflects climatic.
Sub-mesic
Water removed readily in relation to supply; water available for moderately short periods following precipitation.
Sub-xeric
Moist to dry, seasonally moist, periodically dry. Water removed rapidly in relation to supply; soil is moist for short periods following precipitation.
Xeric
Dry and drought resistant, little moisture retention, excessively drained -- May have multiple assignments. Water removed very rapidly in relation to supply; soil is moist for brief periods following precipitation.
Very xeric
Water removed extremely rapidly in relation to supply; soil is moist for a negligible time after precipitation.

 

North Carolina Natural Heritage Program [NCNHP] Plant Ranks and Status

For more information about how plant status and rank are determined, go to the NCNHP’s List of Rare Plants: https://www.ncnhp.org/references/publications/rare-plant-list.

 

U.S. Status Key

For more detailed information, go to: https://www.ncnhp.org/references/publications/rare-plant-list

No U.S. Status listed
E
Endangered
A taxon that is in danger of extinction throughout all or a significant portion of its range.
T
Threatened
A taxon that is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range.
C
Candidate
Taxa for which the USFWS has on file enough substantial information on biological vulnerability and threat(s) to support proposals to list them as endangered or threatened. Proposed rules have not yet been issued because this action is precluded at present by other listing activity. Development and publication of proposed rules on these taxa are anticipated. The USFWS encourages state and other federal agencies as well as other affected parties to give consideration to these taxa in environmental planning [Federal Register, 5 December 1996 Volume 61(235):64481]. Taxa formerly considered “Category 1” are now considered “Candidate.”
FSC
Federal Species of Concern
“FSC” is an informal term. It is not defined in the federal Endangered Species Act. In North Carolina, the Asheville and Raleigh Field Offices of the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service define FSC as those species that appear to be in decline or otherwise in need of conservation and are under consideration for listing or for which there is insufficient information to support listing at this time. Subsumed under the term FSC are all species petitioned by outside parties and other selected focal species identified in USFWS strategic plans, state Wildlife Action Plans, Professional Society Lists (e.g. AFS, FMCS), or NatureServe State Program Lists.

 

NC Rank

For more detailed information, go to: https://www.ncnhp.org/references/publications/rare-plant-list

Not listed by NC Natural Heritage Program
S1
Critically imperiled
Critically imperiled due to extreme rarity or some factor(s) making it especially vulnerable to extirpation (local extinction) from the state. Typically 5 or fewer occurrences or very few remaining individuals (<1,000).
S2
Imperiled
Imperiled in North Carolina due to rarity or some factor(s) making it very vulnerable to extirpation from the state. Typically six to 20 occurrences or few remaining individuals (1,000 to 3,000).
S3
Vulnerable
Vulnerable to extinction either because rare or uncommon, found only in a restricted range (even if abundant at some locations), or due to other factors making it vulnerable to extirpation. Typically 21 to 100 occurrences or between 3,000 to 10,000 individuals.
S4
Apparently Secure
Apparently secure and widespread, usually with more than 100 occurrences and more than 10,000 individuals.
S5
Secure
Common, widespread, and abundant. Essentially ineradicable under present conditions. Typically with considerably more than 100 occurrences and more than 10,000 individuals.
SH
Historical
Of historical occurrence in North Carolina, with some expectation that it may be rediscovered. Its presence may not have been verified in the past 20 years. Upon verification of an extant occurrence, SH-ranked elements would typically receive an S1 rank. Note: an element is not automatically assigned an SH (or SX) rank if it has not been verified in the past 20 years; some effort must have been made to locate or relocate occurrences.
SX
Presumed extirpated
Believed to be extirpated. Has not been located despite intensive searches of historical sites and other appropriate habitat, and virtually no likelihood that it will be rediscovered.
SU
Unrankable
Currently unrankable in North Carolina due to lack of information or substantially conflicting information about status or trends. More information is needed.
SNR
Not Ranked
Statewide Rank not yet assessed.
SNA
Not Applicable
A conservation status rank is not applicable because the element is not a suitable target for conservation for one of the following reasons:
  • - Hybrid - an interspecific hybrid without conservation value;
  • - Exotic Origin - not native to North Carolina;
  • - Accidental/nonregular - outside usual range and not regularly found in North Carolina;
  • - Not confidently present - never documented as present in North Carolina;
  • - Synonym - the taxon is not recognized by the NCNHP.
S?
Uncertain (add status in Notes section)
Denotes inexact or uncertain numeric rank.

 

North Carolina Status Key

Endangered, Threatened, and Special Conern species have legally protected status in NC through NCPCP. NCNHP maintains computer and map files on Endangered, Threatened, Candidate, and Significantly Rare species; paper files are maintained on Watch List species.For more detailed information, go to: https://www.ncnhp.org/references/publications/rare-plant-list

Not Listed by NC Natural Heritage Program
E
Endangered
Any native or once-native species of higher taxon of plant whose continued existence as a viable component of the state’s flora is determined to be in jeopardy or any species of plant determined to be an Endangered species pursuant to the Endangered Species Act.
(Endangered species may not be removed from the wild except when a permit is obtained for research, propagation, or rescue which will enhance the survival of the species.)
T
Threatened
Any native or once-native resident species of plant which is likely to become an endangered species within the foreseeable future throughout all or a significant portion of its range, or one that is designated as a Threatened species pursuant to the Endangered Species Act.
(Regulations are the same as for Endangered species.)
SC-V
Special Concern: Vulnerable
Any species or higher taxon of plant which is likely to become a threatened species within the forseeable future.
(Special Concern species which are not also listed as Endangered or Threatened may be collected from the wild and sold under specific regulations. Propagated material only of Special Concern species which are also listed as Endangered or Threatened may be traded or sold under specific regulations.)
SC-H
Special Concern: Historical
Any species or higher taxon of plant that occurred in North Carolina at one time, but for which all known populations are currently considered to be either historical or extirpated.
SR
Significantly Rare
This is a NCNHP designation. Any species which has not been listed by the NCPCP as an Endangered, Threatened, or Special Concern species, but which exists in the state (or recently occurred in the state) in small numbers (generally fewer than 100 statewide populations) and has been determined by the NCNHP to need monitoring. Significantly Rare species include species of historical occurrence with some likelihood of rediscovery in the state and species substantially reduced in numbers by habitat destruction, direct exploitation, or disease. Species considered extirpated in the state, with little likelihood of rediscovery, are given no N.C. status listed by the NCWRC or NCPCP as E, T, or SC).
SR-L
Significantly Rare-Limited
The range of the species is limited to North Carolina and adjacent states (endemic or near endemic). These are species that may have 20-50 populations in North Carolina, but fewer than 100 populations rangewide. The preponderance of their distribution is in North Carolina and their fate depends largely on conservation here.
SR-T
Significantly Rare-Throughout
The species is rare throughout its range (fewer than 100 populations total).
SR-D
Significantly Rare-Disjunct
The species is disjunct to North Carolina from a main range in a different part of the country or world.
SR-P
Significantly Rare-Peripheral
The species is at the periphery of its range in North Carolina. These species are generally more common somewhere else in their ranges, occurring in North Carolina peripherally to their main ranges, mostly in habitats that are unusual in North Carolina.
SR-O
Significantly Rare-Other
The range of the species is sporadic or cannot be described by the other Significantly Rare categories.
W1
Watch List: Rare but Relatively Secure
Species whose status in N.C. is relatively well known and appear to be relatively secure at this time. While still notably rare, these species do not currently require site-specific monitoring and so are not on the Rare List. Many of these species were formerly on the Rare List; they are retained in this category because they require a lower level of continued monitoring to ensure their long- term security.
W2
Watch List: Rare but Questionable Taxonomy
Species including taxa of dubious validity and taxa under study and potentially to be named. If further study reveals that these are valid taxa, they would warrant addition to the Rare List. This category has been used for named and unnamed taxa that currently appear to have some significant chance of being proven valid.
W3
Watch List: Rare but Questionable Documentation
Species that have been reported from N.C. without adequate documentation. These species should be listed at a higher level when their reported occurrence in N.C. is verified. This category includes sight records, old and vague reports for which no documentation has appeared, and, in a few cases, more recent literature reports for which we have not yet received documentation.
W4
Watch List: Rare but Believed Not Native
Species known to occur in N.C. that current data suggest are not native to N.C. but whose native occurrence is plausible. Some of these species were previously listed at a higher level, but field investigations suggest that all known N.C. occurrences are introductions.
W5
Watch List: Rare because of Severe Decline to Population or Habitat
Species that have declined sharply in N.C. but do not appear yet to warrant site-specific monitoring. Most species in this category have undergone declines of more than 50% (in many cases more than 90%) from their pre-Columbian status. Reasons for decline include exotic pests or pathogens, massive modification of the landscape, suppression of natural fires, and failure of reproduction. Because many of these species were once abundant or even dominant in parts of N.C., they may still be fairly common or frequently encountered, despite the strong decline. If current trends continue, however, many of these species will be threatened with extirpation in all or a major part of their ranges in N.C.
W6
Watch List: Regionally Rare
Species that are rare in one region of North Carolina while being uncommon to abundant within another region. These regional rarities, generally within-state disjuncts, are significant for protection of genetic variation and long-term viability of species. W6 plants are listed immediately following the Watch List in this volume.
W7
Watch List:Poorly Known in NC
Species with inadequate information about their distribution and rarity in N.C. These are generally species not previously listed as rare in N.C. but which appear to be so based on herbarium or museum records and field experience of NCNHP staff, consultants, and cooperating scientists. Further information is needed to determine the true status of these species in N.C.
Exploited
EXPLOITED PLANT TAXA IN NORTH CAROLINA
Plant species listed as Exploited in N.C. were previously tracked on the Watch List (Category W5a). This includes species that are either rare or generally widespread species that are in commercial demand and are often collected from wild populations. Such collection can cause local extirpation and is not sustainable over time. The NCNHP requests information on illegal collection incidents, but does not otherwise maintain species occurrences on Exploited species that are not Significantly Rare or on the Watch List.
ENDEMIC
ENDEMIC PLANTS IN NORTH CAROLINA
This is a list of all taxa (including subspecies) considered to be strictly endemic to North Carolina. The list does not include taxa whose range barely extends into another state, such as taxa endemic to the Roan Mountain area or Great Smoky Mountains National Park.

 

Global Rank

For more detailed information, go to: https://www.ncnhp.org/references/publications/rare-plant-list

No Global Rank Listed
G1
Critically imperiled
Critically imperiled globally because of extreme rarity or because of some factor(s) making it especially vulnerable to extinction. Typically five or fewer occurrences or very few remaining individuals (<1,000) or acres (<2,000) or linear miles (<10).
G2
Imperiled
Imperiled globally because of rarity or because of some factor(s) making it very vulnerable to extinction. Typically 6 to 20 occurrences or few remaining individuals (1,000 to 3,000) or acres (2,000 to 10,000) or linear miles (10 to 50).
G3
Vulnerable
Vulnerable globally either because very rare throughout its range, found only in a restricted range (even if abundant at some locations), or other factors making it vulnerable to extinction. Typically 21 to 100 occurrences or between 3,000 and 10,000 individuals.
G4
Apparently Secure
Uncommon but not rare (although it may be rare in parts of its range, particularly on the periphery) and usually widespread. Apparently not vulnerable in most of its range, but possibly ause for long-term concern. Typically more than 100 occurrences and more than 10,000 individuals.
G5
Secure
Common, widespread, and abundant (although it may be rare in parts of its range, particularly on the periphery). Not vulnerable in most of its range. Typically with considerably more than 100 occurrences and more than 10,000 individuals.
GH
Historical
Known only from historical occurrences, but with some expectation that it may be rediscovered. May still be extant; further searching is needed.
GX
Presumed Extinct
Believed to be extinct throughout its range (e.g., passenger pigeon) with virtually no likelihood that it will be rediscovered. Not located despite intensive searches of historical sites and other appropriate habitat.
GU
Unrankable
Currently unrankable due to lack of information or due to substantially conflicting information about status or trends; need more information.
GNR
Unknown
Global rank not yet assessed.
G_T_
Subspecies or Variety Rank (add status to Notes section)
The rank of a taxonomic subspecies or variety. As an example, G4T1 would apply to a subspecies of a species with an overall rank of G4, but the subspecies warranting a rank of G1.
G_?
Uncertain (add status to Notes section)
Denotes inexact or uncertain numeric rank.
G_Q
Questionable Taxonomy (add status to Notes section)
Taxonomic classification that may reduce conservation priority. Distinctiveness of this entity as a taxon at the current level is questionable. Resolution of this uncertainty may result in change from a species to a subspecies or inclusion of this taxon in another taxon, with the resulting element having a lower-priority conservation status rank.

 

Bloom Area Key

M
Mountains
P
Piedmont
C
Coastal Plain
S
Sandhills

Invasive Status Key

(more about invasive exotics in NC)

Rank 1
Severe Threat
Exotic plant species that have invasive characteristics and spread readily into native plant communities, displacing native vegetation.
Rank 2
Significant Threat
Exotic plant species that display some invasive characteristics, but do not appear to present as great a threat native communities in NC as the species listed in Rank 1.
Rank 3
Lesser Threat
Exotic plant species that spread into or around disturbed areas, and are presently considered a low threat to native plant communities in NC.
Watch List A
Naturalize and may become a problem
Exotic plants that naturalize and may become a problem in the future; includes species that are or could become widespread in North Carolina. At this time, more information is needed.
Watch List B
Problems in adjacent states
Exotic plant species that cause problems in adjacent states but have not yet been reported to cause problems in NC.